Malcolm X (1925-1965), African American activist whose ideas about racial problems in the United States had an important influence on black nationalist and black separatist movements of the 1950s and 1960s. He believed that Western nations were inherently racist and that black people must join together to build their own society and value system. His beliefs gained a broader audience through The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965), published after his assassination. Late in his life, Malcolm X was also known by the religious name El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.
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